Native Plants Suitable for Wildflower Gardens & Meadows or Traditional Gardens in the NY Finger Lakes

See http://www.dec.ny.gov/regs/15522.html for legal status of plants in NY.

I. Native Plants Suitable for Wildflower Gardens & Meadows or Traditional Gardens in the NY Finger Lakes

Native plants often have very specific cultural requirements and success in growing them often depends on reproducing the native habitat. Many references can provide more information on the type of soil, etc. that would be best for a given species. Many of these plants are not available in standard nurseries, but are readily propagated from seed. FLNPS has a members’ seed exchange, and can provide information on propagation. Please see the note on collecting at the end of the plant list.

Herbaceous Plants - Annuals, Biennials, Perennials
Species Common Name Culture Blooms Status Note
Actaea pachypoda
  • doll's eyes
  • white baneberry
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Can take dry shade, deer resistant. A pink-red fruited form can be found. The peduncle is thick compared to A. rubra, so it is easily distinguished.
Actaea racemosa
  • black cohosh
Moist Part Shade, Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Will spread in good conditions, and can tolerate mild drought once established. (Cimicifuga racemosa)
Actaea rubra
  • red baneberry
Moist Part Shade, Shade Spring Showy fruit.
Allium canadense
  • wild garlic
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer Can be weedy.
Allium cernuum
  • nodding onion
Dry, Moist Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Threatened
Allium tricoccum
  • wild leek
  • ramp
Moist Part Shade, Shade Summer edible
Anemone canadensis
  • Canada anemone
Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer Groundcover. Can be weedy in some areas
Anemone quinquefolia
  • wood anemone
Moist Shade Spring Ephemeral.
Anemone virginiana
  • Thimbleweed
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer Large petals, when in seed is easily confused w/A. cylindrica which has tiny curved petals
Anemonella thalictroides
  • rue anemone
Moist Part Shade, Shade Spring Recommended for gardening. Well-drained, slightly acid; Double & pink cultivars available
Angelica atropurpurea
  • purple-stemmed angelica
Moist Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Antennaria howellii
  • Howell's pussytoes
Dry Sun Rocky/Stony Mid Spring Well-drained. Good for rock gardens and rocky slopes. 6-14 inches high, shorter than some other Antennaria sp.
Antennaria neglecta
  • pussy toes
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring grey leaves
Antennaria parlinii ssp fallax (A. plantaginifolia)
  • plantain-leaved pussytoes
Dry Shade Spring Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Antennaria plantaginifolia
  • plantain-leaved pussytoes
Dry Sun, Part Sun Sandy Mid Spring Groundcover. Well-drained. Fuzzy grey leaves and unusual flower shape are good in well drained, poor soils. Best with little competition.
Antonaria neglecta
  • pussy toes
Dry Part Shade Late Spring
Apocynum androsaemifolium
  • spreading dogbane
Dry Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Sandy Summer Can be weedy. Attracts butterflies. Showier than A. cannabinum, but spreads
Apocynum cannabinum
  • Indian hemp
Mid Summer, Late Summer Attracts butterflies.
Aquilegia canadensis
  • wild columbine
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Well-drained soil
Aralia racemosa
  • spikenard
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Summer Well-drained. Interesting in naturalistic areas; grows in ravines, on bluffs, and wooded slopes.
Arisaema dracontium
  • green dragon
Moist, Wet Shade Humus-rich Woodland Early Summer Rare in FL Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Arisaema triphyllum
  • Jack-in-the-pulpit
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Spring, Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Asarum canadense
  • Wild Ginger
Dry, Moist Shade Spring Recommended for gardening. Groundcover; mild drought OK
Asclepias incarnata
  • Swamp Milkweed
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Asclepias quadrifolia
  • Woodland Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca
  • Common Milkweed
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer Can be weedy. Showy fruit. Attracts butterflies. Spreads
Asclepias tuberosa
  • Orange Milkweed
  • Butterfly Weed
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Sandy Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. Well-drained soil
Blephilia hirsuta
  • hairy woodmint
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Summer Scarce in FL Well-drained. fragrant foliage, mint
Calopogon tuberosus
  • grass pink
Wet Sun, Part Sun Acidic Mid Summer exploitably vulnerable - protected Wet meadows & bogs; protected NYS; for experienced growers & from responsible propagators. Not suited for gardens.
Caltha palustris
  • Marsh Marigold
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Acidic Mid Spring Recommended for gardening. Standing water is OK in spring, not year round.
Calystegia sepium
  • Hedge Bindweed
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Can be weedy. Don't encourage. Extremely hard to eliminate.
Campanula rotundifolia
  • Harebells
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun Rocky/Stony Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Well drained, crevices; commercial sources usually European forms
Campanulastrum americana
  • Tall Bellflower
Moist Part Shade Late Summer, Fall Critically imperilled (S1) Recommended for gardening. Biennial. Probably extirpated in the FL area, but grows well and is very attractive. Obtain local seed from exchanges & other gardeners (prolific seed producer)
Cardamine bulbosa
  • Spring Cress
Moist, Wet Part Sun Humus-rich Woodland Mid Spring, Late Spring Edible
Cardamine concatenata
  • cut-leaved toothwort
Moist, Wet Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring Ephemeral. Site can be dry in summer if moist in spring. (Dentaria laciniata)
Cardamine diphylla
  • Two-leaved Toothwort
Moist, Wet Shade Humus-rich Woodland Mid Spring Ephemeral.
Cardamine maxima
  • Large Toothwort
Moist, Wet Shade Mid Spring Ephemeral.
Caulophyllum thalictroides
  • Blue Cohosh
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Early Spring, Mid Spring Showy fruit.
Chamaelirium luteum
  • Devil's Bit
  • Fairy Wand
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Early Summer Threatened NYS (S2) Minimize competition; dioecious-needs both sexes to set seed; female form larger
Chelone glabra
  • White Turtlehead
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening.
Chimaphila maculata
  • Spotted Wintergreen
Dry Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Sandy Acidic Summer difficult in gardens
Claytonia caroliniana
  • Broad-Leaved Spring-Beauty
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Early Spring, Mid Spring Ephemeral. Site can be dry in summer if moist in spring
Claytonia virginica
  • Spring Beauty
  • Narrow-leaved Spring Beauty
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Early Spring, Mid Spring Ephemeral. Site can be dry in summer if moist in spring.
Clintonia borealis
  • Bluebead Lily
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Late Spring, Summer Showy fruit. difficult
Collinsonia canadensis
  • Stoneroot
  • Richweed
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Late Summer, Early Fall Fragrant
Comandra umbellata
  • Bastard Toadflax
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Acidic Late Spring, Early Summer semi-parasitic
Coptis trifolia
  • Goldthread
  • Goldenroot
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Late Spring, Summer Groundcover. difficult
Corydalis aurea var aurea
  • Golden Corydalis
Dry Sun Rocky/Stony Mid Spring, Late Spring, Early Summer Threatened Well-drained. Probably extirpated in Cayuga Basin; use seed from as near as possible; Take care NOT to get weedy garden perennial C. lutea; C aurea is a winter annual & weed in Western US, poisonous to cattle
Corydalis sempervirens
  • Pink Corydalis
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Rocky/Stony Late Spring, Summer, Early Fall Rare in FL Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening. Short-lived, self-sows; probably extirpated in Ithaca area
Cryptotaenia canadensis
  • Honewort
Dry, Moist, Wet Part Shade Summer very small flowers
Cypripedium acaule
  • Moccasin Flower
  • Pink Lady’s Slipper
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Summer Used in traditional 19th century gardens. very difficult; needs very acid humus; most transplants die; not recommended
Cypripedium parviflorum var pubescens
  • Large Yellow Lady's Slipper
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Summer Recommended for gardening. Easiest native Cyp. to grow
Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin
  • Northern Small Yellow Lady's Slipper
Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade Lime Loving Summer Neutral to limey soil
Cypripedium reginae
  • Showy Lady’s Slipper
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Lime Loving Summer Moderately difficult.
Desmodium canadense
  • Tick-Trefoil
Moist Part Shade, Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer
Desmodium glutinosum
  • Pointed-Leaved Tick-Trefoil
Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Summer
Dicentra canadensis
  • Squirrel corn
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Mid Spring Ephemeral. Site can be dry in summer if moist in spring.
Dicentra cucullaria
  • Dutchman's breeches
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Ephemeral. Site can be dry in summer if moist in spring.
Disporum lanuginosum
  • Yellow Mandarin
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Late Spring Scarce Showy fruit.
Doellingeria umbellata
  • flat-topped white aster
Moist Sun, Part Sun Fall Attracts butterflies. (Aster umbellatus)
Epigaea repens
  • Trailing Arbutus
Moist Part Shade, Shade Sandy Acidic Spring Well-drained. Difficult; sandy or humous soil
Epilobium angustifolium
  • Fireweed
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer Can be weedy. Agressive!
Erigeron annuus
  • Daisy Fleabane
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Summer, Fall Can be weedy. Annual, reseeds.
Erigeron philadelphicus
  • Philadelphia Fleabanae
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening.
Erigeron pulchellus
  • Robin's Plantain
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Erythronium americanum
  • yellow trout-lily
  • dog-tooth violet
  • adder's tongue
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Early Spring, Mid Spring Ephemeral. Some clonal colonies do not bloom; others do.
Eupatorium fistulosum
  • Hollow Joe Pye Weed
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Eupatorium perfoliatum
  • Boneset
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall Attracts butterflies.
Eupatorium purpureum
  • Sweet Joe-Pye Weed
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Eupatorium rugosum
  • White Snakeroot
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Summer, Early Fall Can be weedy. Nearly invasive in good soil.
Eurybia divaricata
  • White Wood Aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Summer, Fall Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. (Aster divaricatus) Spreads
Eurybia macrophylla
  • Bigleaf Aster
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Fall Well-drained. Attracts butterflies. (Aster macrophyllus) Well-drained, rich
Eurybia schreberi
  • Schreber's aster
Moist Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Scarce in FL Attracts butterflies. (Aster schreberi)
Euthamia graminifolia
  • Narrow-Leaved Goldenrod
Moist Sun Late Summer Can be weedy. Attracts butterflies.
Eutrochium maculatum
  • Spotted Joe-Pye Weed
Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. Eupatorium maculatum
Fragaria vesca
  • Woodland Strawberry
Moist Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Showy fruit. edible
Fragaria virginiana
  • Field Strawberry
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Showy fruit. edible
Galearis spectabilis
  • Showy Orchis
Moist Part Shade Rocky/Stony Spring rich, moist, rocky woodlands. DIfficult.
Gaultheria procumbens
  • Wintergreen
  • Teaberry
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Spring, Summer Groundcover. Showy fruit. evergreen
Gaura biennis
  • Gaura
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Summer, Early Fall Can be weedy. Biennial, allow to self sow.
Gentiana andrewsii
  • Prairie Bottle Gentian
Moist Part Sun Early Fall Rare in FL
Gentiana clausa
  • Closed Gentian
Moist, Wet Part Sun Early Fall Recommended for gardening.
Gentianopsis crinita
  • Fringed Gentian
Moist Sun, Part Sun Neutral Early Fall Very difficult, very site specific, biennial.
Geranium maculatum
  • Wild Geranium
Moist Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Can take some summer drought.
Geranium robertianum
  • Herb Robert
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring, Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Can be weedy. Nice in fall.
Goodyera pubescens
  • Rattlesnake Plantain
Moist Part Shade Acidic Late Summer, Early Fall
Helenium autumnale
  • Sneezeweed
Moist Sun, Part Sun Fall Recommended for gardening. good in wet meadows
Helianthus decapetalus
  • Ten-Rayed Sunflower
Moist Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Open woods; Can spread
Helianthus divericatus
  • Woodland Sunflower
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Summer Can be weedy. agressive
Helianthus tuberosus
  • Jerusalem Artichoke
Moist Sun, Part Sun Summer Can be weedy. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. edible, very aggressive, hard to eradicate
Heliopsis helianthoides
  • False Sunflower
  • Ox-Eye Sunflower
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. aggressive
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta
  • Sharp-Lobed Hepatica
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Lime Loving Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa
  • Round-Lobed Hepatica
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Hibiscus moscheutos ssp moscheutos
  • Swamp Rosemallow
Moist, Wet Sun Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Houstonia caerulea
  • bluet
  • Quaker ladies
  • azure bluet
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Early Summer
Hydrastis canadensis
  • Goldenseal
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Mid Spring, Late Spring Rare in FL Showy fruit. Slow growing; cool, slightly acid-neutral soil
Hydrophyllum canadense
  • Broad-Leaved Waterleaf
Moist Part Shade, Shade Early Summer Groundcover. Variegated leaves in sun, can spread
Hydrophyllum virginianum
  • Virginia Waterleaf
Moist Part Shade, Shade Early Summer Groundcover. can spread
Hypericum punctatum
  • St. John's-Wort
Dry, Moist Part Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer, Late Summer, Early Fall
Hypoxis hirsutus
  • Yellow Star Grass
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Summer
Impatiens capensis
  • Orange Jewelweed,
Moist, Wet Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Can be weedy.
Impatiens pallida
  • Pale Jewelweed
  • Yellow Jewelweed
Moist, Wet Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Can be weedy.
Iris versicolor
  • Blue Flag
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Can take standing water
Jeffersonia diphylla
  • Twinleaf
Dry, Moist Shade Neutral Mid Spring Rare in FL Recommended for gardening. Great foliage; flower short-lived; easy from fresh seed.
Lilium canadense
  • Canada Lily
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Deer love it
Lilium philadelphicum var philadelphicum
  • Wood Lily
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Sandy Acidic Summer Difficult. Acidic, well-drained sand/soil.
Lilium superbum
  • Turk’s Cap Lily
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Mid Summer, Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Fussy about site; may refuse to bloom or bulb split into scales.
Lithospermum latifolium
  • Broad-Leaved Gromwell, Puccoon
Dry, Moist Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Rare in FL Not showy but neat if you happen to have it
Lobelia cardinalis
  • Cardinal Flower
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Scarce Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Very showy species - some odd cultivars
Lobelia inflata
  • Indian Tobacco
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer Can be weedy. Not very showy
Lobelia siphilitica
  • Great Blue Lobelia
Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade Late Summer, Fall Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Short lived – spread seeds
Lupinus perennis
  • Wild Lupine
Sun Sandy Acidic Late Spring, Early Summer Rare in FL Recommended for gardening. Well-drained, acid; goes dormant after flowers
Lysimachia ciliata
  • Fringed Loosestrife
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Recommended for gardening.
Maianthemum canadense
  • Canada Mayflower
Dry, Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Acidic Ephemeral. No alkalinity
Maianthemum racemosum
  • False Solomon's Seal
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. previously Smilacina
Maianthemum stellatum
  • Starry False Solomon's Seal
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Showy fruit. Moist meadows; Requires 2 different clones to fruit
Mentha arvensis
  • Field Mint
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Summer
Mertensia virginica
  • Virginia Bluebells
Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Scarce Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Ephemeral. Can be dry in summer
Mimulus ringens
  • Monkey Flower
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Summer Short-lived, but can naturalize& pesist
Mitchella repens
  • Partridgeberry
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Early Summer, Mid Summer Groundcover. Showy fruit. Slow growing, keep free of much leaf litter
Mitella diphylla
  • Miterwort
  • Mitrewort
  • Bishop's-Cap
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening.
Monarda didyma
  • Oswego Tea, Bee Balm
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Attracts butterflies. Can spread a lot in sun & moist soil
Monarda fistulosa
  • Wild Bergamot, Bee Balm
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Myosotis laxa
  • Wild Forget-Me-Not
  • Small-Flowered Forget-Me-Not
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer, Mid Summer Very small flowers; edge of water
Oenothera biennis
  • Evening Primrose
Dry, Moist Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer, Fall Used in traditional 19th century gardens. night flowering; aggressive biennial
Oenothera parviflora
  • Sundrop
Dry, Moist Sun Summer Biennial
Oenothera perennis
  • Small Sundrop
Dry, Moist Sun Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Biennial
Osmorhiza longistylis
  • Long-Styled Sweet Cicely
Moist Part Shade, Shade Lime Loving Spring
Oxalis montana
  • Common Wood Sorrel
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Late Spring, Early Summer, Mid Summer
Oxalis stricta
  • Yellow Wood Sorrel
Dry, Moist Sun Late Spring, Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Very weedy!
Packera aurea
  • Golden Ragwort
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. good groundcover, best in large groups (syn: Senecio aureus)
Panax quinquefolia
  • American Ginseng
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Mid Spring Well-drained. Showy fruit. Difficult
Panax trifolius
  • Dwarf Ginseng
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Early Spring, Mid Spring Ephemeral.
Penstemon digitalis
  • Foxglove Beardtongue
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening.
Penstemon hirsutus
  • Hairy Beardtongue
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Rocky/Stony Mid Summer, Late Summer Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Prefers rocks or sandy soil; easy from seed
Phlox divaricata
  • Wild Blue Phlox
Moist Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Phlox stolonifera
  • wild phlox
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies.
Phlox subulata
  • Moss Phlox
Dry, Moist Sun Rocky/Stony Mid Spring, Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Rocky or sandy soil but must be well drained; some highly colored cultivars are hybrids
Phryma leptostachya
  • Lopseed
Moist Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Scarce Rich, moist woods.
Phytolacca americana
  • Pokeweed
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Can be weedy. Showy fruit. Large, with poisonous fruit.
Platanthera blephariglottis
  • White Fringed Orchid
Moist, Wet Sun Acidic Late Summer exploitably vulnerable - protected Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Bogs & sphagnum meadows
Platanthera dilatata
  • Bog Candles
Moist Part Shade Acidic Mid Summer exploitably vulnerable - protected fragrant, bogs
Platanthera grandiflora
  • Large Purple Fringed Orchid
Moist, Wet Part Shade Acidic Mid Summer exploitably vulnerable - protected bogs
Platanthera psycodes
  • Small Purple Fringed Orchid
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Mid Summer Used in traditional 19th century gardens. difficult in cultivation
Podophyllum peltatum
  • Mayapple
Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Spring Ephemeral. Showy fruit.
Pogonia ophioglossoides
  • Rose Pogonia
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Acidic Early Summer exploitably vulnerable - protected easiest bog orchard to grow
Polemonium reptans
  • Jacob's Ladder
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Late Spring, Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Semi-dormant in summer.
Polygonatum biflorum
  • Smooth Solomon's Seal
Moist Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Polygonatum pubescens
  • Hairy Solomon's Seal
Moist Shade Mid Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Porteranthus trifoliatus
  • Bowman’s Root
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Potentilla canadensis
  • Common Cinquefoil
  • Old-Field Cinquefoil
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer
Prenanthes altissima
  • Rattlesnake Root
  • White Lettuce
Dry Part Shade, Shade Late Summer Looks very weedy once flower stalk elongates, but it isn't.
Pycnanthemum incanum
  • Hoary Mountain Mint
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Can be weedy. fragant
Ranunculus septentrionalis
  • Marsh Buttercup
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring, Early Summer Consistently moist, slightly acidic soil preferred
Rudbeckia laciniata
  • cut-leaved coneflower
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Spreads. “Golden Glow” is a double form
Sagittaria latifolia
  • Arrowhead
Wet Late Summer wetlands
Sanguinaria canadensis
  • Bloodroot
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Lime Loving Early Spring, Mid Spring Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. sterile double forms available
Sarracenia purpurea
  • Pitcher Plant
Wet Sun, Part Sun Acidic Late Spring, Early Summer Showy fruit. Acid bogs. Half sphagnum, half sand, only well, rain, or distilled water.
Scrophularia marilandica
  • Figwort
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Summer not showy, but tolerates dry shade
Sisyrinchium angustifolium
  • Blue-Eyed Grass
Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer, Mid Summer large flowered cultivars probably hybrid
Solidago altissima
  • Tall Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Fall Can be weedy.
Solidago arguta
  • Sharp-Toothed Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Fall Can take dry shade, med height; woodland edge
Solidago bicolor
  • Silverrod
  • White Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Not very showy, but tough
Solidago caesia
  • Blue-Stemmed Goldenrod
  • Wreath Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Early Fall, Mid Fall Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening. takes dry shade & woodland, under 3 ft
Solidago canadensis
  • Canada Goldenrod
Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Fall Can be weedy. Very aggressive - avoid planting it. Chemically discourages neighboring plants!
Solidago flexicaulis
  • Zig-Zag Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Summer, Fall, Early Fall Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. woodland, under 3 ft; showy; spreads
Solidago gigantea
  • Early Goldenrod
  • Smooth Goldenrod
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall Can be weedy.
Solidago juncea
  • Early Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Sun Early Fall
Solidago nemoralis
  • Old-Field Goldenrod
Dry Sun, Part Sun Sandy Mid Fall Drought tolerant; poor soil best
Solidago patula
  • Rough-Leaved Goldenrod
Moist, Wet Sun Early Fall, Mid Fall Very large, spreads
Solidago rugosa
  • Rough Goldenrod
  • Tall Hairy Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Fall, Mid Fall Can be weedy. spreads rapidly, pulls easily; cultivar Fireworks less aggressive (but still IS)
Solidago ulmifolia
  • Elm-Leaved Goldenrod
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Fall Rare in FL A woodland goldenrod
Spiranthes cernua
  • nodding ladies' tresses
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer FLNPS does not recommend orchids for gardens. Specialists who can provide the exacting conditions & care, and who obtain ethically propagated plants, are able to grow some native orchids.
Spiranthes lucida
  • shining ladies' tresses
  • wide-leaved ladies' tresses
Wet Sun, Part Sun Lime Loving Early Summer, Mid Summer Scarce in FL FLNPS does not recommend orchids for gardens. Specialists who can provide the exacting conditions & care, and who obtain ethically propagated plants, are able to grow some native orchids.
Streptopus rosea
  • Rosy Twisted Stalk
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Mid Spring Showy fruit. Difficult? Evenly moist, cool location
Symphyotrichum cordifolium
  • heart-Leaved aster
  • blue wood aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Fall, Late Fall Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. (Aster cordifolius)
Symphyotrichum laeve var laeve
  • Smooth Blue Aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Lime Loving Fall Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Attracts butterflies. (Aster laevis)
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp lanceolatum
  • White Aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Fall Attracts butterflies. Weedy (Aster lanceolatus)
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum
  • white aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Fall Can be weedy. Attracts butterflies. (Aster lateriflorus)
Symphyotrichum lowrieanum
  • Lowrie's Aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Fall (Aster lowrieanus) Similar to S. cordifolium
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae
  • New England aster
Moist Sun, Part Sun Fall Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Attracts butterflies. (Aster novae-angliae) may need staking unless cut back mid-summer
Symphyotrichum pilosum var pilosum
  • hairy white old-field aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Fall, Late Fall Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. (Aster pilosus) prostrate cultivar available
Symphyotrichum prenanthoides
  • zig-zag aster
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. (Aster prenanthoides)
Symphyotrichum puniceum
  • swamp aster
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Attracts butterflies. (Aster puniceus)
Symphyotrichum undulatum
  • wavy leaved aster
Dry Part Sun, Part Shade Late Summer, Fall Can be weedy. Attracts butterflies. 1-3', very pale petals appear pinkish-lilac to blue depending on light. More floriferous in sun.
Symphyotrichum urophyllum
  • arrow-leaved aster
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Fall Can be weedy. Attracts butterflies. (Aster sagittifolius)
Symplocarpus foetidus
  • Skunk Cabbage
Wet Part Shade, Shade Very Early Spring Groundcover. Interesting flower; seasonally inundated
Tephrosia virginiana
  • Goat’s Rue
Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Sandy Acidic Early Summer Rare in FL Well-drained. Difficult, resents transplant/dividing; rocky or sandy soils
Thalictrum dioicum
  • Early Meadow Rue
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Rocky/Stony Mid Spring, Late Spring Well-drained. Flowers not showy; dioecious; drier in summer OK
Thalictrum pubescens
  • Tall Meadow Rue
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Tiarella cordifolia var. cordifolia
  • Foam Flower (Running)
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Late Spring, Early Summer, Mid Summer Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. Stoloniferous; var collina (Wherry’s, clumping) blooms longer but is native further south. Cultivars often Wherry’s or hybrids.
Trientalis borealis
  • Starflower
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Acidic Spring Ephemeral. woodland or bog
Trillium erectum
  • Wake Robin
  • stinking benjamin
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Mid Spring Recommended for gardening. Has an off-white form; grow from seed.
Trillium grandiflorum
  • White Trillium
  • Large-Flowered Trillium
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Mid Spring, Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. grow from seed
Trillium undulatum
  • Painted Trillium
Moist Part Shade Acidic Late Spring Difficult; cool, moist, acid, well drained; extremely difficult to propagate-get proof prior to purchase
Triosteum perfoliatum
  • Tinker's-Weed
  • Wild Coffee
  • Horse Gentian
Moist Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Late Spring, Early Summer Showy fruit. Interesting orange seeds; hard to germinate
Uvularia grandiflora
  • Large-Flowered Bellwort
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Neutral Early Spring, Mid Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. May go dormant in summer if dry; neutral to limey
Uvularia perfoliata
  • Perfoliate Bellwort
Moist Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Believed extirpated Well-drained. Showy fruit.
Uvularia sessilifolia
  • Sessile-Leaved Bellwort
  • Wild Oats
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Spring Showy fruit.
Veratrum viride
  • False Hellebore
Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Mid Summer Ephemeral. seasonal inundation good
Verbena hastata
  • Blue Vervain
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer
Verbena urticifolia
  • White Vervain
Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Can be weedy. Not very showy
Vernonia noveboracencis
  • New York ironweed
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Fall Recommended for gardening. Attracts butterflies. Very tall, late blooming composite. Questionably native in the Finger Lakes region, but lovely in the garden.
Veronicastrum virginicum
  • Culver's Root
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening.
Viola canadensis
  • Canada Violet
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Mid Spring, Late Spring Recommended for gardening.
Viola cucullata
  • Marsh Blue Violet
Moist, Wet Part Sun Wet meadows & bogs
Viola labradorica
  • Dog Violet
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Spring Recommended for gardening. Heat tolerant woodlander; purple leaved plant is a northern form
Viola pallens
  • Northern White Violet
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Spring
Viola palmata
  • Palmate Violet
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Spring Scarce
Viola pubescens
  • Downy Yellow Violet
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Mid Spring Recommended for gardening.
Viola rostrata
  • Long-Spurred Violet
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Spring Heat tolerant woodlander
Viola sagittata var.ovata
  • Ovate-Leaved Blue Violet
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Rocky/Stony Spring True blue flowers; dry, poor or rocky soils
Viola sororia
  • Common Blue Violet
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. various colors, but spreads! Rhizomes! Even in dry spots
Viola striata
  • Creamy-White Violet
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring, Early Summer Scarce Happiest in rich, moist, but can take dry
Waldsteinia fragarioides
  • Barren Strawberry
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. Too aggressive in mixed beds; not edible
Zizia aptera
  • Heart-leaved Alexanders
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Takes only moderately dry
Zizia aurea
  • Golden Alexanders
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Spring, Early Summer, Fall Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Self-sows too freely, but 2 bloom seasons
Ferns & Fern Allies
Species Common Name Culture Blooms Status Note
Adiantum pedatum
  • maidenhair fern
Moist, Wet Shade Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Athyrium filix-femina
  • Lady Fern
Dry, Moist Shade Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Cystopteris bulbifera
  • Bulblet Fern
Dry, Moist Shade Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. spreads nicely, particularly down slopes
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
  • Hay-scented Fern
Moist Part Shade Not protected in NY Weedy
Diplazium pycnocarpon
  • Narrow-Leaved Glade Fern
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Scarce Prefers slopes and lime.
Dryopteris carthusiana
  • Spinulose Wood Fern
Moist, Wet Part Shade, Shade Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Dryopteris goldiana
  • Goldie's Fern
Moist Shade Scarce Recommended for gardening. Easy to propagate from spores
Dryopteris intermedia
  • evergreen wood fern
  • intermediate wood fern
Moist Shade Recommended for gardening.
Dryopteris marginalis
  • Marginal Wood Fern
Dry, Moist Shade Recommended for gardening.
Matteuccia struthiopteris
  • Ostrich Fern
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Spreads into dense thickets
Onoclea sensibilis
  • Sensitive Fern
Moist, Wet Part Shade, Shade Not protected in NY Showy fruit. Spreads
Osmunda cinnamomea
  • Cinnamon Fern
Wet Part Sun, Part Shade wetlands
Osmunda claytoniana
  • Interrupted Fern
Moist, Wet Part Shade Recommended for gardening. Elegant, can take drier soil than other Osmundas
Osmunda regalis
  • Royal Fern
Wet Part Shade, Shade wetlands
Phegopteris hexagonoptera
  • Broad Beech Fern
Moist Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Scarce
Polypodium virginianum
  • Common Polypody
  • Rock Cap Fern
Moist Shade Rocky/Stony Lime Loving Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Prefers thin soil on top of rocks
Polystichum acrostichoides
  • Christmas Fern
Dry, Moist Part Shade, Shade Recommended for gardening.
Pteridium aquilinum
  • Bracken Fern
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Not protected in NY Can be weedy.
Thelypteris noveboracensis
  • New York Fern
Moist, Wet Part Shade Can be weedy.
Grasses, Sedges, Rushes
Species Common Name Culture Blooms Status Note
Agrostis hyemalis
  • hair grass
Dry, Moist Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Light, airy; short lived but self sows
Andropogon gerardii
  • big bluestem
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Very large.
Bromus altissimus
  • earlyleaf brome
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Summer Can be weedy. Cool season; early greening, nice seeds
Bromus ciliatus
  • Fringed Brome Grass
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer Cool season; nice seeds
Carex aquatilis
  • northern water sedge
Wet Sun, Part Sun Acidic Early Summer Scarce in FL
Carex comosa
  • bottlebrush sedge
Wet Sun Summer Showy fruit. wet ditches or rain gardens
Carex grayii
  • Asa Gray's sedge
Moist Part Shade, Shade Early Summer Rare in FL Showy fruit. fruits are large spiked balls
Carex hirtifolia
  • Hairy Sedge
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer
Carex intumescens
  • Swollen-Fruited Sedge
Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer
Carex pensylvanica
  • woodland sedge
Dry, Moist Part Shade Spring Groundcover. Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. grass-like groundcover in wooded areas
Carex plantaginea
  • plantain-leaved sedge
Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. short, wide leaves, woodland
Carex platyphylla
  • broad-leaved sedge
Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. short, wide leaves, woodland
Carex prasina
  • swamp sedge
  • drooping sedge
Moist, Wet Part Shade Summer Showy fruit. interesting drooping seedheads, along streams
Carex vulpinoidea
  • foxtail sedge
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Early Summer
Danthonia sp.
  • oatgrass
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer Groundcover. D. spicata, D. compressa are short and tolerate being walked on.
Dichanthelium clandestinum
  • Panicum clandestinum
  • deertongue
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer Groundcover. Mid-height, erect, clumper.
Elymus canadensis
  • prairie wild rye
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Blue tinged leaves; great in meadows
Elymus hystrix
  • bottle-brush grass
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Elegant for shade, particularly backlit or with dark background
Elymus riparius
  • riverbank wild rye
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Summer Can be weedy. Showy fruit. good for naturalizing along creeks
Elymus villosus
  • hairy wild rye
  • silky wild rye
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer Scarce in FL
Elymus virginicus
  • Virginia wild rye
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall
Equisetum arvense
  • common horsetail
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Can be weedy.
Equisetum hyemale
  • scouring rush
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Can be weedy. Interesting in bogs, spreads
Juncus tenuis
  • path rush
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Early Summer, Mid Summer Can be weedy. initially cute, but very weedy
Panicum virgatum
  • switch grass
Moist Sun Mid Summer Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. fall color
Schizachyrium scoparium
  • little bluestem
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Early Fall Recommended for gardening. golden fall color
Scirpus atrovirens
  • common bulrush
Moist, Wet Sun Early Summer flops
Sorghastrum nutans
  • indian grass
Dry, Moist Sun Late Summer, Early Fall, Mid Fall Scarce in FL Showy fruit.
Vines
Species Common Name Culture Blooms Status Note
Adluma fungosa
  • Allegheny vine
Moist, Wet Part Shade, Shade Summer Rare in FL Recommended for gardening. Climbing Bleeding Heart
Amphicarpa bracteata
  • hog peanut
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer Well-drained. Annual; can overgrow neighbors
Apios americana
  • groundnut
  • hopniss
  • wild bean
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Summer, Late Summer, Early Fall Well-drained. Edible seeds & tubers.
Celastrus scandens
  • American bittersweet
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Fruits terminal- the more aggressive oriental bittersweet has axial fruit
Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis
  • purple clematis
Part Sun Rocky/Stony Neutral Spring Rare in FL Showy fruit. Rocky woods & ledges, gorges
Clematis virginiana
  • virgin's bower
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Summer, Fall Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Can spread aggressively in moist sun, otherwise OK, large vine
Echinocystis lobata
  • wild cucumber
Moist Part Shade, Shade Late Summer, Early Fall Can be weedy. Showy fruit. can overgrow neighbors
Lonicera hirsuta
  • hairy honeysuckle
Moist Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening.
Menispermum canadense
  • Canada moonseed
Moist Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer, Mid Summer Scarce in FL Showy fruit. grape-like fruits mildly toxic; survives but fails to bloom in shade
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
  • Virginia creeper
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Summer Can be weedy. Groundcover. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. scarlet fall color, large climber, rampant, can overwhelm competition
Vitis spp.
  • wild grape
Moist Sun, Part Sun Summer Showy fruit. Vitis aestivalis, V labrusca, V riparia, V vulpina; Rampant, hard to control, wildlife value
Shrubs, Trees
Species Common Name Culture Blooms Status Note
Acer negundo
  • black maple
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Spring weedy
Acer pensylvanicum
  • striped maple
  • moosewood
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Acidic Spring Recommended for gardening. Cool acidic soil; nice bark
Acer saccharum
  • sugar maple
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Neutral Very Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Day-glo orange fall color
Acer spicatum
  • mountain maple
Moist Part Shade, Shade Acidic Late Spring cool, acidic soil
Amelanchier arborea
  • downy serviceberry
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Spring Showy fruit. tough, wildlife value
Amelanchier laevis
  • Allegheny serviceberry
  • shadbush
  • shadblow
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Very Early Spring, Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. tough plant, wildlife value
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
  • bear berry
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Sandy Acidic Mid Spring Rare in FL Groundcover. Showy fruit. Difficult to establish
Aronia arbutifolia
  • red chokeberry
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Spring Scarce Showy fruit. prefers bogs and swamps
Aronia melanocarpa
  • black chokeberry
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Spring Scarce Recommended for gardening. can survive dry, but not happily
Betula alleghaniensis
  • yellow birch
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Late Spring
Betula papyrifera
  • paper birch
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Mid Spring Scarce in FL Difficult; short lived; cool moist soil
Carya ovata
  • shagbark hickory
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Can take moderately dry soil; peeling bark; wildlife value
Cornus alternifolia
  • alternate-leaved dogwood
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. bird food source
Cornus amomum
  • silky dogwood
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. wildlife value
Cornus canadensis
  • bunchberry
Moist Part Shade, Shade Humus-rich Woodland Acidic Late Spring, Early Summer Scarce in FL Groundcover. Showy fruit. wants a cool site
Cornus florida
  • flowering dogwood
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. prone to anthracnose
Cornus racemosa
  • gray dogwood
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. spreads by stolons
Cornus rugosa
  • round-leaved dogwood
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Rocky/Stony Early Summer Showy fruit. gravelly slopes; wildlife value
Cornus sericea
  • red-osier dogwood
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Spreads (stoloniferous); only moderate dryness, prefers wet
Corylus americana
  • American hazel
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Very Early Spring Scarce in FL Showy fruit. slow grower
Crataegus sp.
  • hawthorn
Dry, Moist Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Well-drained. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Thorns! WIldlife value. Numerous hard-to-distinguish species in our area.
Dasiphora floribunda
  • shrubby cinquefoil
  • potentilla
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Summer Scarce in FL Well-drained. Nurseries sell sterile European cultivars; pure species and local genotype hard to find.
Diervilla lonicera
  • northern bush honeysuckle
Dry, Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Rocky/Stony Early Summer, Mid Summer, Late Summer Spreads via stolons but nice if room is available.
Dirca palustris
  • leatherwood
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Lime Loving Mid Spring rich soil, found in calcareous soils but tolerates acid, slow grower
Fagus grandifolia
  • American beech
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Spring Can be weedy. root suckers!
Fraxinus americana
  • white ash
Moist Sun, Part Sun Humus-rich Woodland Spring
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
  • red ash
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Spring Believed extirpated Moist-wet woods; early fall color; cultivars available; believed to be extirpated in the wild in Cayuga Lake Basin
Gymnocladus dioica
  • Kentucky coffee tree
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring, Early Summer Rare in FL Showy fruit. rich alluvial soils; large pods on females can be messy
Hamamelis virginiana
  • witch-hazel
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Mid Fall, Late Fall Recommended for gardening. OK in seasonally wet-moderately dry conditions
Ilex verticillata
  • winterberry
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. only female has berries, needs nearby male
Juglans cinerea
  • butternut
Moist Sun, Part Sun Well-drained. Showy fruit. needs ground water, not really dry
Juglans nigra
  • black walnut
Moist Sun, Part Sun Lime Loving Early Summer Rich soil; not much will grow underneath it
Kalmia latifolia
  • mountain laurel
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Early Summer Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Well-drained.
Lindera benzoin
  • spicebush
Moist, Wet Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Mid Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. only female has berries, needs nearby male; fall color, tolerates wide pH range
Liriodendron tulipifera
  • tulip poplar
Moist Sun, Part Sun Humus-rich Woodland Early Summer Recommended for gardening.
Lonicera canadensis
  • fly honeysuckle
Moist, Wet Part Shade Late Spring running understory shrub
Magnolia acuminata
  • cucumber magnolia
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Humus-rich Woodland Spring Recommended for gardening.
Malus coronarius
  • crabapple
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit.
Nyssa sylvatica
  • tupelo
  • black gum
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Scarce in FL good fall color, slow growing
Physocarpus opulifolius
  • ninebark
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Pinus resinosa
  • red pine
Dry, Moist Sun Well-drained. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Reddish bark, good specimen tree
Pinus rigida
  • pitch pine
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Acidic Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. If leader destroyed, forms twisted shrub
Platanus occidentalis
  • Sycamore
Moist Sun, Part Sun Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Winter bark interest; messy
Prunus americana
  • wild plum
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. best in naturalized groups; colonizes
Prunus serotina
  • black cherry
Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Spring Showy fruit. Attracts tent caterpillars, disease prone
Prunus virginiana
  • choke cherry
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Spring shrubby
Quercus alba
  • white oak
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. wildlife value
Quercus rubra
  • red oak
Moist Sun, Part Sun Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. fast growing
Rhododendron maximum
  • great laurel
  • rosebay
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Acidic Mid Summer Rare in FL Recommended for gardening.
Rhododendron prinophyllum
  • rose shell azalea
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Acidic Spring Recommended for gardening. deciduous, fragrant
Rhus aromatica
  • fragrant sumac
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer Can be weedy. Well-drained.
Rhus typhina
  • staghorn sumac
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer Showy fruit. good fall color, spreads, short lived
Rosa blanda
  • smooth rose
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. thornless, can be trained as a climber
Rosa carolina
  • pasture rose
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. short, suckers
Rosa pallustris
  • swamp rose
Moist, Wet Sun Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. best color, longest bloom; suckers
Rosa setigera
  • prairie rose
Moist Sun, Part Sun Summer, Early Fall Rare in FL Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Long bloom, good color, climber; possibly introduced to Finger Lakes from slightly further west
Rubus odoratus
  • purple flowering raspberry
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer Can be weedy. Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Large, showy flowers plus edible fruit! Typical Rubus aggressiveness
Salix discolor
  • pussy willow
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Very Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Salix nigra
  • black willow
Moist, Wet Sun Early Summer Attracts butterflies. Erect tree, grows fast
Sambucus canadensis
  • American elderberry
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Early Summer, Mid Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. edible
Sambucus pubens
  • red-berried elder
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens.
Sassafras albidum
  • sassafras
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring Good bird tree, fall color; borderline hardy
Shepherdia canadensis
  • buffaloberry
Dry, Moist Part Shade Lime Loving Mid Summer Showy fruit. berry mildly poisonous
Sorbus americana
  • American mountain ash
Moist Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. short-lived, food for birds
Spirea alba var. alba
  • meadowsweet
Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Attracts butterflies. spreads
Spirea alba var. latifolia
  • meadowsweet
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Mid Summer, Late Summer Attracts butterflies. Spreads; takes drier soils and has wider leaves than var. alba
Staphylea trifolia
  • bladdernut
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Mid Spring, Late Spring Scarce in FL Showy fruit. striped bark; in sun can sucker to large size
Symphoricarpos albus var. albus
  • snowberry
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Summer Scarce in FL Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. Nurseries mostly carry var. laevigatus, a western U.S. native
Thuja occidentalis
  • eastern white cedar
  • arborvitae
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Recommended for gardening. Evergreen, many cultivars available. Deer love the foliage.
Tilia americana
  • basswood
Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Summer, Mid Summer fragrant
Tsuga canadensis
  • eastern hemlock
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Wooly adelgid is fatal; little grows beneath hemlocks
Ulmus rubra
  • slippery elm
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun Early Spring
Vaccinium angustifolium
  • low bush blueberry
Moist Part Sun, Part Shade Rocky/Stony Acidic Summer Groundcover. Edible fruit.
Vaccinium corymbosum
  • high-bush blueberry
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun Acidic Mid Spring, Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. edible fruit
Vaccinium macrocarpum
  • large cranberry
Wet Sun Acidic Summer Requires an acidic bog area to grow. Edible fruit.
Vaccinium myrtilloides
  • velvet leafed blueberry
  • Canadian blueberry
  • velvetleaf huckleberry
Dry Sun, Part Sun Sandy Acidic Summer Showy fruit. Reputed to have the sweetest blueberry fruits.
Viburnum acerifolium
  • maple-leaved viburnum
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade, Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Cream & pink fall color; Viburnum leaf beetle & deer problems
Viburnum cassinoides
  • witherod
Dry, Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Attracts butterflies. Viburnum leaf beetle (Viburnum nudum var cassinoides)
Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum
  • northern arrowwood
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Early Summer Showy fruit. Viburnum leaf beetle
Viburnum lantanoides
  • hobblebush
Moist Shade Early Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Viburnum leaf beetle; needs cool soil (Viburnum alnifolium)
Viburnum lentago
  • nannyberry
Dry, Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. large shrub, edible
Viburnum opulus var. americanum
  • cranberry viburnum
Moist, Wet Sun, Part Sun Late Spring, Early Summer Recommended for gardening. Showy fruit. Used in traditional 19th century gardens. viburnum leaf beetle (Viburnum trilobum)
Zanthoxylum americanum
  • prickley ash
Moist Sun, Part Sun, Part Shade Late Spring Scarce in FL fragrant; thorns